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Eugenics & Depopulation Are The Means; Scientific Dictatorship Is The Goal!

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« on: August 25, 2010, 05:59:08 pm »

Letter number one:

I am an “albino,” thirty-seven years old and single; the chief reason I am not married is I am unwilling to bring into existence another life to labor under the same disadvantages as I. I write this not in a grumbling, but simply a plain statement of a plain fact.

Letter number two:
My husband used to drink hard, and died of tuberculosis last October.  Both his father and mother drink hard * * * and all of the family on his side drink. Now what I would like to know is, will my two children, a girl of 18 months and a boy of 5 years and 6 months, inherit their father’s health and characteristics, or will they inherit my health, as I was the strongest both mentally and physically? I would like to know, as it has often worried me when I think of my children; if they should be like their paternal grandmother and grandfather I am sure I would rather the Lord would take them now while they are both innocent children.

Letter number three:

The male’s grandmother, on his father’s side, died from heart disease, and the female’s mother had a very serious case of valvular heart trouble, I should like to know as to whether heart diseases are inherit-able or, if there is only a tendency, may this be effectually warded off?  I shall very sincerely appreciate reliable advice you can matter. Perhaps it may assist in securing a freer expression that the parties interested broke the engagement on account of the above considerations, the facts being not known when the engagement. The following extracts from a letter, and the pedigrees that if describes, are presented in order to illustrate the fact that many per-sons upon being educated as to their own and their prospective mar-riage mate’s hereditary qualities, will, if hereditary defect be found, forego a contemplated marriage; or, if already married, will forego the privileges and comforts of parenthood if it be established that their offspring would be defective or degenerate. give me on this for me to state was entered into.

The following extracts from a letter, and the pedigrees that if describes, are presented in order to illustrate the fact that many persons upon being  educated as to their own and their prospective marriage mate’s hereditary qualities, will, if hereditary defect be found, forego a contemplated marriage; or, if already married, will forego the privileges and comforts of parenthood if it be established that their offspring would be defective or  degenerate.

Letter number four:

I am deeply interested in uncovering a family taint, which comes to me as a thunderbolt from a clear sky and which bids fair to wreck my own life in the possible permanent separation from my beloved son, a really brilliant youth of 22 years, a senior in the electrical engineering class at Armour Institute, to have graduated this past year, but who was compelled to leave school owing to a nervous breakdown. * * *Dr.—made a diagnosis of dementia præcox in January last, but did not tell me what the diagnosis was. * * * I find there is a deep-seated family taint, which I want to know is or is not responsible for the possible total annihilation of the only child I have — one I love better than my own life. My mother was the oldest of ten children, born near ——, New York. She is living today a healthy, normal woman at 74. She had five brothers, whose children were apparently normal with the exception of one, whose daughter had a few epileptic seizures. ——, one of the brothers, was insane for a short time, and confined in the—Asylum, but never had a recurrence of the attack. Of the girls in the family my mother was normal. The next had epileptic fits and was advised to marry young. She married a coarse, drunken farmer; had two normal daughters, so far as I know, and one who was an inmate of the—Insane Asylum, an epileptic until her death at 18 or 20 years. Mary, the next married, had epileptic fits, and died before middle age, had no children.—married, had a son and daughter normal, had epilepsy at 52 and lived but two years. The youngest was epileptic from birth, probably insane, died at about 24. My mother’s mother was a normal woman, lived to be 76, I believe, her father likewise, although I shall find that out later; her grandmother lived to an extreme old age, and my mother tells me now she believes she drank constantly. I am anxious to go farther back than that, if I can find the way. My father was a high-strung, nervous man of violent temper, and describes his mother as having been the same. My father was a graduate of—College, —— Theological, a minister, but his temper made life a hell on earth for us. My sister is 36, unmarried, a fine musician, pianist, but given to extreme sick headaches. My oldest brother was pronounced insane from birth, was whipped and punished by my father, and finally received a severe injury to the skull and brain in the coal mines at ——, Indiana, was sent to the insane asylum at ——, where he ran away some months later.  As there were few asylums in Indiana at that time, they did not take the trouble to go after him, and his life from that time on was a series of commitments to workhouses, jails and penitentiaries, for petty offences, insane with criminal tendencies. A year ago he died from enlargement of the spleen. * * * My younger brother was well educated, a fine musician, married a young girl, had two children, left taking a position with a circus, and we have not located him for thirteen years. The boy, his son, 14 years, is described as being exception-ally clever and interested, but played truant, lies and steals, and is at present in the Boys’ Reform School, at ——, Indiana.The little girl, about 11, is wayward, hard to control, and I should describe her as sex offending, if not held with a firm hand.My boy’s father was a drunkard, an easy-going, good-natured man, a steady drinker, had amassed a fortune of probably $30,000. The whole family are queer—one brother a spirit medium, the other a spirit photographer. I know little of them. His father was 20 years older than myself, died of Bright’s disease at 45. The boy is an only child, the father died when he was 14 months old. * * * My son was a brilliant student, a genius in fact, and would have made a name in the world. That he should be consigned to oblivion behind the walls of an insane asylum for the remainder of his life is a blow almost to great to bear.I want to find out whether he is punished for the sins of his ancestors in this rotten family.He did not smoke, drink, associate with lewd women, never had a venereal disease and did not practice ****. He had typhoid and scarlet fever, his sight was defective, born so. * * * If I could only assist you in establishing one little valuable item that would help us to understand why these fearful things have to be!If you would only help to educate the poor mothers and fathers of these neurotic children.

Letter number five:

I am referred to you with a problem of heredity in the case of epilepsy, and should appreciate being informed whether, in your judgment, the young man of whom I write should marry at all, and in case of marriage what are the prob-abilities of transmitting the disease. Inasmuch as I am the woman whom he wishes to marry, I wish to know as nearly absoutely as possible what the risk is. * * * Two physicians have told me that the danger of passing on the heritage of disease is too great—one a specialist in nervous diseases. * * * I should like to have it settled and to feel that my stand is taken in accordance with the best authority.I am sorry my information is not more complete and detailed.I have been told that the young boy who died in the home was very bad off, and a continual care all his life, requiring one person’s constant atten-tion. My physician in—said the disease never was stamped out in a family where it once existed, that it might skip one generation or two, but was sureto appear again.

Then follow extracts from a series of letters from the young man, giving quite extended and apparently frank descriptions of epilepsy in his own family.

Letter number six:

I have read in a number of magazine and newspapers articles of the work being done by you, and, if you can consistently consider the same, desire to present a personal case to you for consideration and advice.  At about the age of 12 years the writer suffered from a case of acute Anterior Poliomyelitis,the same affecting the lower limbs only, from the hip joints. After a period of some three or four months, during which time the limbs were in a completely paralyzed condition, the strength began to slowly return, and after a lapse of some eight to ten months was able to get about with a cane.
All this was some ten or twelve years ago, the writer at the present time being 24 years of age. He still uses a cane in walking, both lower limbs are somewhat undersized, the bones apparently not being fully developed and the muscles scanty, the right leg being a very small amount shorter than the left.  The party is fitted for any kind of office work or other light occupation, which does not require manual labor or necessitates being on the feet all the time, but does not possess sufficient strength or agility to do manual labor or move about rapidly or very quickly.
The writer is one of a family of four children, three of whom are living, one having died of some kidney trouble recently, the remainder, excepting the writer, being in apparently normal condition. The parents are both living, aged about 55 years, both normal and healthy. The grandparents were all strong and healthy, both families raising a family of ten children, and living to the age of near 75 years, except maternal grandfather, who died of some fever when he was near 50 years of age. Great-grandparents were normal in all respects, as far as I can learn. The case referred to is the only one ofAnterior Poliomyelitis known to occur in four generations referred to.

The information desired is this: Would the offspring of a union between the writer, constituted as covered in the former part of this communication, and a woman, to all appearances in a perfectly normal condition, and whose family record for three generations shows no cases ofAnterior Poliomyelitis,be likely to develop this disease, or a tendency toward the same?  If you can give me any information along this line the same will be very much appreciated.

P. S.—As a matter of information, will add that since childhood, aside from the disease referred to, the writer has been in absolutely perfect health, the only difficulty being that of imperfect power of locomotion.

This letter is quite typical of those received from persons suffering not only from the so-called functional disorders, but also, as in this case, of persons suffering from the results of infectious diseases wherein the exciting cause is not hereditary and the factor of heredity in the predisposing causes cannot in the present state of knowledge be accurately measured. Such mental attitudes are eugenically wholesome.

With the growth and diffusion of knowledge concerning human heredity a national eugenic conscience will develop. Eugenics should not—and could not often, if it would—prevent lovers from marrying; but early eugenical training will in a measure regulate “falling in love.” If an individual whose personality, or whose family, is weak or defective in reference to a particular trait, marries, he should for his own and his descendants’ sake, seek a mate who is strong and whose family is strong, wherein he and his family are weak. If, however, it is the good of the race that is at stake, such a person possessing a very serious or handicapping hereditary defect may well not marry at all; and the person of high talent in one direction would seek—other things being equal—a consort from a family characterized by distinction in the same direction. Specialization in human, no less than in plant and animal, strains would result in greatly increased efficiency. 

Society must at all costs encourage an increased fecundity of the socially fit classes and must cut off the inheritance of individuals suffering from hereditary defects, which seriously handicap their fitting into the social fabric.
It, therefore, behooves the American people to educate along eugenical lines, not only the more sterling classes, to the end that they may make fortunate matings, but also those individuals with educable minds, who suffer from serious hereditary defects, to the end that they will voluntarily decline to increase their kind. These letters just quoted indicate that hereditary traits influence mate selection among persons knowing the manner of the inheritance of specific traits.  With intelligent people, then, eugenical marriage appears to be largely a matter of education. In individual cases, wherein this remedy fails, segregation or sterilization should be resorted to as a supporting measure. It may be fitting again to call attention to the eugenic value of the policy of resorting to segregation or sterilization in all cacogenic cases wherein it is apparent that preventive agencies have failed or will fail. If sterilization is opposed, let its opponents bestir themselves and make efficacious other remedies.

(5) Systems of matings purporting to remove defective traits.

Although it is known that defective traits of the recessive type will disappear somatically, in subsequent matings, so long as matings with normal individuals of pure strains are made, still in such families there is always a likelihood that a simplex (i. e.,a tainted germ-plasm, but normal personality) individual will mate with another person similarly descended. For the sake of brevity and conciseness, the accompanying hypothetical pedigree, rather than a series of actual histories, is given in order to illustrate what happens in such cases:

Hence the selection of certain potential parents, and the elimination of others, is the only basis of a possible effective eugenics program of any sort. It, therefore, behooves society to set in operation selective forces which can control mate selection in a practicable manner consonant with the highest moral and social ideals.

(6)General environmental betterment.  It is held by some schools of social workers that better schools, better churches, better food, better clothing, better living, and better social life will remedy almost any social inadequacy in individuals. The studies of this committee point strongly in the opposite direction. They prove conclusively that much social inadequacy is of a deep-seated biological nature, and can be remedied only by cutting off the human strains that produce it.

Heredity and environment work hand in hand; rarely do they pull oppositely.  As a rule, a good ancestral germ-plasm will furnish a good environment for the offspring and a bad ancestral germ-plasm will add to the degenerate hereditary gifts of its offspring a poor environment. Eugenics and euthenics each have their tasks to perform. Neither can perform the whole work required in advancing the social condition of mankind. 

(7)Polygamy. In animal breeding polygamy or the “pure sire method” has been one of the most potent agencies in rapid advancement and, could the essential biological principles of polygamy be applied to mankind, we should expect these same biological values to accrue. An eugenical program that advocates polygamy must be doomed to failure because it strikes at one of our most priceless heritages so laboriously wrought through centuries of moral struggle. It would be buying a biological benefit at vastly too great a moral cost. 

A eugenics program to be effective must and can be based upon an enhanced sense of monogamy, and of the sacredness of love and marital fidelity. If any serious students of the modern eugenical studies advocate polygamy, it is unknown to the members of this investigating committee, although many uninformed critics of the eugenics program unhesitatingly complain that eugenics proposes “to apply the methods of the stud farm to mankind.”

(8)Euthanasia.  The ancient Spartans were a race of fighters.  The business of the Spartan mothers was to grow soldiers for the State, and Spartan social life and customs appear to have been well directed toward this end. However much we deprecate Spartan ideals and her means of advancing them, we must admire her courage in so rigorously applying so practical a system of selection. According to history and tradition, Spartan officials exposed to the elements children who promised unfitness as adults for effective hand to hand combat.  Sparta produced soldiers and she consumed them, and left but little besides tales of personal valor to enhance the world’s culture. With euthanasia, as in the case of polygamy, an effective eugenical agency would be purchased at altogether too dear a moral price. Any individual once born should, in the opinion of the committee, be given every opportunity and aid for developing into a decent adulthood of maximum usefulness and happiness. Preventing the procreation of defectives rather than destroying them before birth, or in infancy, or in the later periods of life, must be the aim of modern eugenics.

(9)Neo-Malthusianism, or the purposeful limitation of the number of offspring, is a problem for the constructive side of the eugenics program to cope with, rather than an important factor for society to consider in its efforts to cut off the supply of defectives, for defectives of the lower types do not greatly limit sex indulgence by the fear of having children, nor do they resort to artificial means to prevent conception. Hence this remedy does not apply to them. Above this class there is doubtless another class of potential parents of all grades of mentality, and of all grades of social and financial standing who resort to artificial means to prevent conception.

With such classes selfishness is a ruling motive, but doubtless in many such cases the determining factors are traceable to current social influences, and as such should be combatted. In a letter dated January 14, 1913, to this committee, Theodore Roosevelt says:

As you say, it is obvious that if in the future racial qualities are to be improved, the improving must be wrought mainly by favoring the fecundity of the worthy type and frowning on the fecundity of the unworthy types.  At present we do just the reverse. There is no check to fecundity of those who are subnormal, both intellectually and morally, while the provident and thrifty tend to develop a cold selfishness, which makes them refuse to breed at all.

It is not an impossible conception to think of a future social status wherein selection for parenthood will be not held a natural right of every individual; but will be a prize highly sought by and allotted to only the best individuals of proven blood, and those individuals who are not deemed worthy and are by society denied the right to perpetuate their own traits in subsequent generations, will be held in pity by their fellows. In pointing out the possible ways of accomplishing it, and in perfecting the practical methods for its execution, the achievement of this ideal is, to speak briefly, the task of the eugenics program for the long indefinite future.

The choice between large and small families for provident parents of good innate traits will be made instantly in favor of large families by all eugenists, just as the same eugenists will insist that defective parents must be stopped from having any children at all.  The committee feels constrained to condemn in no uncertain terms the purposeful limiting of offspring of parents of worthy hereditary qualities.

(10) Laissez faire:
It is held in many quarters that a rational eugenics program is impossible, or, at best, that eugenic efforts are unnecessary, for, during the ages mankind appears to have improved and advanced without such a program. In reply, let it be said that modern social conditions have themselves in a large measure brought on the problems that face us; and it behooves society to bestir itself to solve them.

Natural selection would continue to cut off the individual blood lines grossly unadapted to modern conditions if it were permitted to operate. It is the bolstering up of the defective classes by a benefi-cent society that constitues the real menace to our blood, because it lowers the basis of parenthood. Usually nature does not long main-tain an unused function. If she gave mankind reason and under-standing, and such reason and understanding are not used for pro-moting their own conservation, then such faculties are apt to be dis-carded in the ruthlessness of natural selection. In this case the means would consist in disseminating defective traits among the general population, and such deterioration would continue until society itself would no longer be able to bolster up the defectives. Then fortunate combination of traits and natural selection would again operate, and in the long cycle a few worthy strains of mankind would again rise. 

There must be selection not only for progress, but even for maintaining the present standard. To the degree we inhibit natural selection, we must substitute rational selection, else our blood will deteriorate.  The marvelous rise of plants and animals under domestication—accomplishing in a few years results that in nature might never have been wrought, or if wrought would have consumed many times the length of time found sufficient by man—has been due to man’s applying a rational method in selecting parents. A similar possibility for the rise of the innate specialized qualities of the human stock is within the grasp of society; but like all great prizes it must be fought for and purchased at the price of great effort.


Human society needs to avail itself of every possible means for its own advancement. Quite naturally, these means fall into two classes—

(1)   those pertaining to improving the condition of individuals already born;

(2) those concerning the improvement of the innate qualities of future generations.

The latter means is the concern of the science of eugenics, and eugenics in turn works quite naturally along two channels—

(1) concerning the increased fecundity and fortunate matings of the better classes;

(2) concerning the cutting off of the supply of defectives.

Eugenics is at best a long-time investment, and will appeal only to far-sighted patriots. Like all other long-time investments, the earlier and the greater the primary investment, in accordance with the familiar principle of geometrical progression, the vastly greater the end result. This particular investigation aims to fit into the general scheme of social betterment by attempting to point out a practicable means for accomplishing the cutting off of the supply of innate social misfits. 

It thus purports to be only one of several agencies of social advancement. It is the duty of human society to grasp every possible means for its amelioration, and, if it finds in the segregation and sterilization of defectives a means for improving the innate qualities of future generations without inflicting a present moral wound, it is the duty of society even at great cost and effort to bestir itself in applying such remedy. This investigation points very strongly to the fact that with all of the upbolstering influences of modern humanitarianism, natural forces no longer suffice to select only the fittest for the human breeding stock. We contend that the perpetuity of our civilization depends primarily upon the conservation of the best inborn traits of our citizens; and that a social order finding a key to the conservation of its best units—and failing to use it, is remiss in its social duty and will suffer racial deterioration. A successful society must at all hazards protect its breeding stock, and since, under modern conditions, a vigorous program of segregation supported by sterilization seems to present the only practicable means for accomplishing such end, a progressive social order must in sheer self-preservation accept it.

By the time a consistent elimination program has been in operation for two generations, the lines of descent of lowest levels of the American population will have been cut off, and during this time the institutions can be made more and more self-supporting, due continually to receiving a higher class of inmates and to administrative reform, and experience in practical self-maintenance. Gradually these institutions can be transformed into industrial schools, and can be used perpetually for educating, training and segregating the more unfortunate, and the least gifted members of the population. There will always be insane, feeble-minded and deformed individuals; but they need not constitute so large a proportion of our total population, nor need they contaminate our more worthy families.

If the history of human civilization and of plant and animal breeding have taught us anything they have taught us clearly that the human race is capable of vast improvement by rational selection of parents. And this can be done without sacrificing one whit our ideals of love and fidelity. Hand in hand with the working out of the eugenical program will come an increased and enhanced feeling of the sanctity of life and of parenthood.

This program for cutting off the lower levels of the human breeding stock is only a part of the general eugenics program, which must include also the positive side, namely, that of encouraging increased fecundity and fortunate matings among the better classes. Indeed, as time goes by, the business of eugenics will tend more and more toward this positive side,

aristogenics, it is sometimes called.

The program as outlined by the committee calls for a task that will require two generations for the completion of its first stage. No matter to what extent laws may be passed, unless the eugenics program becomes a part of the American civic religion, the financial support necessary to put it into execution cannot be secured from the several legislatures. Nor, with-out such general feeling, will it be possible even with abundant money to effectively execute a program.

If America is to escape the doom of nations generally, it must breed good Americans. The fall of every nation in history has been due to many causes, but always chiefest among these causes has been the decline of the national stock. Nations must change, but they need not of necessity die out. A quickened eugenics conscience is one of the prerequisites necessary to the working out of a successful eugenics program. Eugenics must be diffused through our religious and moral codes. It must be taught throughout our national educational system.  It must be the subject of continued research.

Along with eugenical advance will come social and moral advancement, for, if not, why should we try to breed better persons? The more moral society will foster the eugenics ideal, and the eugenics program will in turn produce people susceptible of a higher social and moral development.

To epitomize—of the several remedies reviewed
segregation and sterilization are the ones deemed by this committee
to be most feasible and effective in cutting off
from the human population the supply of defectives

Restrictive marriage laws and customs, eugenic education of the public, of prospective marriage consorts, and in youth of potential parents, and general environmental betterment are all eugenic agencies of great value.

In this particular problem, however, they rank greatly below segregation and sterilization, although in other social programs they are of prime importance. We condemn Neo-Malthusianism because in it we fail to find an agency able to cut off the supply of defectives, but, on the other hand, we find it fraught with great danger, in that it is more apt to strike at fecundity in our better classes than among degenerates. Systems of matings purporting to remove defec-tive traits, polygamy, euthanasia, and laissez-faire, are condemned unreservedly.

In the subsequent reports of the studies of this committee, we propose, by the means of first-hand facts, a considerable body of which has already been secured and studied, to present to the public data for weighing the several problems that appertain to this investigation. 



In the preliminary studies of this committee facts concerning each of the several related aspects of the problem, enumerated in the preface of this study, have been and are still being collected. These studies appear amply to justify the commendation to the American people of the following program, which, if consistently followed by all of the states and the general government, will, we believe, in two generations largely but not entirely eliminate from the race the source of supply of the great anti-social human varieties which now (1913) constitute approximately 10 per cent. of the total population:

1.   That, in case sterilization is limited to the inmates of institu-tions, the American state institutions for the segregation and treatment of the anti-social classes continue to receive public support enabling them for at least two generations to increase their capacity for inmates at a ratio differential in reference to the increase of the total population, equal at least to one-half such differential growth of such institutions, taken as a whole, during the two decades 1890-1900. Such increase requires that by 1980 the custodial institutions of the country must be able to care for 1,500 persons per 100,000 population.

2.   That the present apparent tendency of society to commit to institutions the socially inadequate at an early age and for a less ex-treme type be encouraged in order (a) to insure the segregation of the varieties sought to eliminate before the beginning of, or as early as possible in, the reproductive period, and (b) that the earlier treatment and training may the more surely and safely restore such individuals to society.

3.   That the segregation program be supported by a sterilization program as follows: That during the period while under State custody every inmate (except those committed for life) of an institution maintained in whole or in part by the public funds be examined as to innate personal traits and family pedigree, and that all such inmates found to be potential parents with undesirable hereditary potentialities and not likely to be governed by the highest moral purpose shall be humanely sterilized prior to release from their respective custodians. Such a supplementary sterilization program will call for surgical sterilization of inmates prior to their release from institutions as follows: beginning with approximately 80 persons per year per 100,000 total population in 1915 and increasing to approximately 150 persons per year per 100,000 total population in 1980.

4.   Attention is called to the fact that the relation between the segregation feature and the sterilization feature of the program here-with proposed is automatic. If for humanitarian, social or other rea-sons, objection is made to sterilization, let society keep the potential parent with dangerous hereditary qualities segregated during the repro-ductive period ; if the objection to sterilization can be overcome, then convalescent inmates or persons having served their allotted commit-ments in institutions, though they be potential parents with dangerous hereditary qualities, can be first sterilized and then from a eugenical—but not necessarily from a social—point of view safely be returned to society. The committee feels that the proposed model sterilization law (Chapter VIII, Bulletin 10 B) provides amply for safeguarding the rights of the individual, for conserving humanitarian principles and at the same time for protecting society against the deterioration of the innate qualities of its members.

5.   From a moral, social, and religious, as well as from a biological and legal point of view, the program of segregation and sterilization is, the committee feels, justified because

(a)   It appears to be the duty of society to foster by all possible means the innate, as well as the acquired physical, mental and moral well-being of the race, and this program promises the promotion of such an end.

(b)   It proposes to sterilize and thus cut off the lines of descent only of persons amply demonstrated in each particular case to be unable to understand, or, if understanding, morally unable to inhibit or control himself or herself in a manner preventing the continuance of his or her unworthy traits.  To permit such individuals to reproduce their kind is neither merciful nor just.

(c)   The consent of the inmate (or his guardians) to the necessary operation can often be secured, thus relieving the State from imposing upon an individual, even though he be defec-tive or insane, who may, because of such operation, bear some resentment against society. When possible such con-sent should be secured, but if such consent cannot be secured then the operation must proceed, for the protection of society must outweigh the desires or privileges of an anti-social individual.

(d)   There is evidence to show that sex immorality is not encour-aged or increased as a result of the sterilization of those manifestly unfit for parenthood. Our investigations indicate that such persons seldom are deterred from immoral prac-tices by any consideration which sterilization would remove, nor does the sterilization of degenerates appear further to break down the modicum of self-respect and control that normally belong to such individuals.

6.   It is felt that the sterilization law proposed by the committee will stand the test of constitutionality by the courts. The purely punitive sterilization law of the State of Washington was recently held by the Supreme Court of that state to be neither “cruel nor unusual.” A purely eugenical law, expertly drawn and operating humanely and applicable only to individuals who by due process of law and by scien-tific investigation are demonstrated to be social menaces of the gravest character, would probably be found constitutional in any of the several States.

7.   The Federal Government should exercise the same care in preventing the landing of inferior human breeding stock that the State governments should take in eliminating the inferior varieties from the stock already settled here. It should also apply eugenic principles in the administration of its several institutions for criminals and insane.

8.   That the segregation and sterilization feature of the proposed program be further supported by legislation and by education applic-able to persons with physical disabilities (such as hereditary blindness, deafness, deformity, constitutional weakness, and predisposition to specific diseases), but still possessed of normal mind and subject to social influence and amenable to law. If the defect be an extreme sort, such persons should be deterred from parenthood by eugenical educa-tion during their youth. Such education should be supported by laws and customs limiting or prohibiting their marriage. With some in dividuals of these classes sterilization by consent may be desirable. If these remedies fail with any particular group of the physically inade-quate, then such group of individuals should be classed as socially inadequate and as such should be subjected to the legal segregation and sterilization features of this program.

9.   Due continually to receiving a higher grade of inmates and to extending the colonization and industrial systems for better treatment and partial self-maintenance of inmates, it is probable that the necessary increased institution capacity demanded by the recommended program can be provided for without greatly increasing the expense burden in relation to the total state budgets and to the per capita expense to the total population. With institutional growth will come a greater de-mand for trained physicians, eugenists and administrators with a con-sequent increased skill in diagnosis and treatment and in determining the hereditary qualities and innate traits of the inmates, all of which will tend to accelerate the attainment of the desired ends.

10.   Sterilization of a male by vasectomy skillfully executed is a simple, safe, and effective method for preventing procreation by him without otherwise greatly disturbing his physiological, mental or social economy. By skillful surgical technique and sometimes—though very rarely—by natural processes the vas may be re-anastimosed and the procreatory functions thereby restored. Castration therefore appears to be the only absolutely sure method of sterilizing males, but when young boys are thus operated upon it appears also to inhibit the develop-ment of their secondary sexual characteristics as well as to destroy the procreatory functions. Castration of adult males seems to be unaccom-panied by any great physiological change other than sterilization. For general eugenic purposes, vasectomy carefully executed is considered sufficiently certain to insure effective sterilization. It is recommended as the best general method where it is considered desirable to sterilize cacogenic males; to be supplanted by other operations only for addi-tional medical or social reasons.

11.   The sterilization of the female—whether ovariotomy, salpin-gectomy, or hysterectomy—is a more serious matter. However, mod-ern surgery and hospital care have greatly reduced the danger of such operations. Salpingectomy and hysterectomy successfully executed have but little physiological effect other than the effective sterilization of females of any age, nor does ovariotomy often have any apparent untoward effects upon adult women. Rare cases of women regenerating ovaries—which were thought to have been entirely removed—and bearing children have been reported. In any effective sterilization program, defective females will have to be sterilized in fair proportion to the number of males thus operated upon, else a substantial reduction in the anti-social strains of our population will be greatly retarded.

12.   In some individual cases of sterilization, a therapeutic value, and in others—though quite rarely—an injury, appears to have been wrought.Oftentimes the inmates of institutions are sterilized for purely therapeutic reasons. The committee feels that the application of eugenical sterilization should in no way interfere with such practice.  If, incidental to such an operation, a defective line of inheritance is cut off, a eugenic end is also accomplished. Nor should there be any law forbidding in private practice the surgical operation of sterilization for eugenical reasons upon persons at their own or their families’ request. In general the same laws that govern criminal surgery and malpractice should govern a possible abuse of these operations.

13.   By the consistent application of the segregation, sterilization, and education program herewith reported the American people can in two generations largely purge their blood of the great mass of innately defective traits from which they now suffer.
For the negative side or the cutting off of defectives, it would appear to be a good policy continually to attack in the manner described in Chapter IX of study No. II, the descent lines of the lowest one-tenth of our population. 

Continuous decimal elimination should become a part
of the eugenics creed of civilized people.

The future efforts of this committee will be directed toward extending, evaluating, analyzing, and interpreting the data now being accumulated; and reporting the results of its investigations in a series of studies...
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"For the first years of [Ludwig von] Mises’s life in the United States...he was almost totally dependent on annual research grants from the Rockefeller Foundation.” -- Richard M. Ebeling
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