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Eugenics & Depopulation Are The Means; Scientific Dictatorship Is The Goal!

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« on: August 25, 2010, 05:56:50 pm »

From a careful perusal of this diagram one learns that in so far as the bodily  aspect  and  the method  of  inheritance  of  a  trait  are concerned there are two kinds of traits, namely, (1)  dominant traits, and (2) recessive traits. The following pedigrees illustrate  how each of these types is inherited:



There are many thousand human traits; in the Trait Book (Bulletin No. 6, Eugenics Record Office) Dr. C. B. Davenport lists 2,500 human characteristics—mental and physical; normal and pathological; defective and sterling. But it must not be assumed that these characteristics are unit traits in the Mendelian sense; doubtless most of them are hereditary complexes which resolve into their elements, permitting new conditions in hereditary transmission. A given individual is a fortuitous mosaic of the unit traits of his ancestors. The foregoing diagram and charts show how these traits are segregated, sorted, and recombined. The location of independent units of heredity and the determination of the manner of their inheritance constitute one of the most important branches of eugenical study.
Eugenics is a long-time investment, and will appeal only to far-sighted patriots
,
(Notice the psyop from 1913!:  if you supported exterminating the undesirables, you were a 'far-sighted patriot'!)

but, due to the infinite possibilities of recombination, it should produce royal returns in both positive and negative directions.

The studies of this committee are limited to the negative side of the problem, namely, the uprooting of inborn defectiveness, rather than to the positive or constructive agencies of mate-selection and fecundity, among the more talented classes. Its task therefore is vastly less difficult than that which confronts the student of the constructive agencies, for, if a person possesses hereditary traits which render that particular individual unable to cope with his social environment, such person’s line of descent should be cut off—a relatively simple process. But for the determination and consummation of wise matings among the upper levels in a highly organized society, the highest degree of scientific knowledge and of social endeavor, in addition to a much longer period of time, are required.

THE SOCIALLY INADEQUATE IN THE AMERICAN POPULATION

The accompanying table, which the committee has compiled from the census reports, shows the extent and growth of institution population in the United States. Fig. No. 4.



In this table the epileptics are included with the other classes; specialized institutions for this type of defectives are for the most part of recent origin. Dr. David F. Weeks (Nov. 3, 1913) reported for the State of New Jersey 443 epileptics at the Skillman Village, 426 in other institutions, 62 in schools, 880 others at large—a total of 1,811 who are registered at the State Village for Epileptics. He estimates that approximately 7 per cent. of the institution population of the United States are epileptics.


THE SCOPE OF THE COMMITTEE’S WORK.

It is hoped that in future censuses data will be secured for measur-ing the movement of the anti-social varieties of our population. In applying any program for reducing the supply of defectives it is essen-tial that such data be constantly at hand, else how can the efficacy of the agencies applied be judged? It should be possible, at regular intervals, to construct tables similar to the above for each of the classes and sub-classes described in Chapter II of this study.

Besides these individuals in institutions at one time constituting .914 per cent. of our total population, there are several times this num-ber of persons now living who have never been committed to the State’s custody, for the population of institutions is constantly shifting. Be-sides these there are those of equally meagre natural endowments and equally anti-social in conduct who, due to the caprice of fortune, have never been taken in custody by the State.

Just above this class there is a great aggregation of the individuals on the border-line between usefulness and social unfitness, who are so interwoven in kinship with the still more socially inadequate families that they are wholly unfitted for parenthood, because they cannot pro-duce offspring with even mediocre natural endowments. If they mate with a higher level, they contaminate it; if they mate with the still lower levels, they bolster them up a little only to aid them to continue their own unworthy kind. They constitute a breeding stock of social unfitness.

For the purposes of eugenical study and in working out a policy of elimination, it seems fair to estimate the anti-social varieties of the American people at 10 per cent. of the total population; but even this is arbitrary. No matter in what stage of racial progress a people may be, it will always be desirable in the interests of still further advance-ment to cut off the lowest levels, and to encourage high fecundity among the more gifted.

According to the last census (1910) .914 per cent. of the total population, or 841,244 persons, were inmates of institutions for the anti-social and the unfortunate classes in the United States. The institution population is constantly shifting, and the inmates and patients, as a rule, remain under custodial care but a few years. Of the total number of living persons, then, a much larger percentage have been legally committed to the State’s custody after having been duly declared inadequate in one or another phase of the normally expected social reactions. Besides these persons who have been committed to institutions, there are many others of equally unworthy personality and hereditary qualities who have, through the caprice of circumstance, never been committed to institutions. In addition to these unfit persons there are many parents who, in many cases, may themselves be normal, but who produce defective offspring.

This great mass of humanity is not only a social menace to the present generation, but it harbors the potential parenthood of the social misfits of our future generations.  It therefore largely constitutes the socially inadequate varieties of the American population.

Insofar as the defective traits of the members of these varieties are inborn, they are to be cut off only by cutting off the inheritance lines of the strains that produce them. This is the natural outcome of an awakened social conscience; it is in keeping not only with humanitarianism, but with law and order, and national efficiency. Under an older and harsher order of civilization these lower classes were cut down by disease, famine and petty strife, while the stronger survived, albeit when petty strife took on the aspects of serious warfare then, too, the upper levels suffered most severely; under the present social order there is a bolstering up of the lower and more helpless levels so that their fecundity is evidently operating against these older inhuman, but race-purifying, agencies.

It now behooves society in consonance with both humanitarianism and race efficiency to provide more human means for cutting off defectives.  Society must look upon germ-plasm as belonging to society and not solely to the individual who carries it. Humanitarianism demands that every individual born be given every opportunity for decent and effective life that our civilization can offer. Racial instinct demands that defectives shall not continue their unworthy traits to menace society. There appears to be no incompatibility between the two ideals and demands. 

CHAPTER II.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE SOCIALLY UNFIT FROM DE-FECTIVE INHERITANCE:
THE CACOGENIC VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN RACE.


The basis for measuring social inadequacy is purely functional, but, in considering the removal of such inadequacy, the causes of the lack of proper functioning must be studied, and hence, for such purposes, the logical basis of classification is etiological. And, if the eugenical rather than the environmental side of the problem is to be considered, then, quite properly, the practical classification scheme must be primarily a biological one based upon hereditary qualities.

For a long time students of human society have practically agreed that, along with the circumstances of environment, the anti-social individuals of the human race originate to some degree from innate characteristics; that there are families and strains of low social value or of positive social menace.

Individual misfits in the social fabric are sometimes classified as “the Defective, the Dependent, and the Delinquent.” Sometimes this classification of “the three D’s” is recast and increased to the five D’s by adding the “Deficient” and the “Degenerate” classes. In this classification:

1, a tramp or a pauper would be called a Dependent;
2, an idiot or an imbecile would be called a Deficient;
3, the manic depressive or the senile dement would be called aDefective;
4, the thief or the truant would be called a Delinquent;and,
5, a sadist or a moral imbecile would be called a Degenerate.

This classification is, however, inadequate from the eugenical point of view, for the eugenical classification of individuals is based upon innate traits and hereditary potentialities. Whether wholly of defective inheritance or suffering from an insurmountable hereditary handicap, the members of the following groups are, in so far as their traits are hereditary, cacogenic, and the following classification is, therefore, presented as being constructed on a eugenical basis:

1, the feeble-minded class ;
2, the pauper class ;
3, the inebriate class ;
4, the criminalistic class;
5, the epileptic class;
6, the insane class;
7, the constitutionally weak, or the asthenic class;
8, those predisposed to specific diseases, or the diathetic class;
9, the physically deformed class;
10, those with defective sense organs, as the blind and the deaf, or the cacæsthetic class.

This classification of the socially inadequate is obviously partly legal and partly medical, but if is in most part biological, although a
purely biological classification would be extremely complex, since it must be based upon unit traits of defective inheritance and their combinations into personalities of the various legal, medical and social types. For an exact scheme of classification no simple basis has yet been found. Such a scheme would involve as many classes as there are anti-social individuals, for no two individuals, even though they may belong to the same general class, will have exactly the same combination of traits. It is sufficient for present purposes to find a scheme providing for the grouping of related types on the basis of those hereditary qualities which appear to dominate their respective personalities. In such a scheme the general lines of demarcation are clearly enough drawn, but the specific boundaries must be arbitrarily and tentatively indicated.

In the classification of the cacogenic varieties of the human race just rendered many of the classes overlap and oft times a given individual may belong to two or more classes. Thus, for instance, factors of feeble-mindedness doubtless run through some of the other groups, and insanity and criminality often overlap and so on. The problem of eugenics would be infinitely simpler if segregable traits rather than individuals could be made the immediate rather than the ultimate basis of selection. But the individual with his or her composite of good and bad qualities must be the immediate basis for eugenical classification, since he or she is the immediate basis for selection for parenthood.  This classification on the basis of individuals is further justified by the fact that, in the case of defectives, one type of defect usually stands out prominently above the rest and the individual, although he may possess a complex of defects, is thus called blind or insane or criminalistic, according to his most prominent characteristic, athough he may possess innately any or all of these characteristics, any one of which makes him cacogenic. Hence, because members of the above enumerated classes possess in common a number of traits incompatibile with the best social adjustment, this classification appears to fit well into both the social and the biological scheme and may, therefore, well be used as the practical working basis for the profitable study of the best practical means for cutting off the supply of human defectives.

1. THE FEEBLE-MINDED CLASS


The greatest of all eugenical problems in reference to cutting off the lower levels of human society consists in devising a practicable means for eliminating hereditary feeble-mindedness. From a functional point of view, there are all grades and qualities of this defect from the lowest idiot with the mentality not greater than that of the normal two-year-old child to the imbecile with the mentality not greater than that of a twelve-year-old child and the “backward” child or adult.  The chronological age of such individuals is always somewhat and may be greatly in excess of their mental years.

From a social point of view this classification is perhaps sufficient.  Tredgold in his book on mental deficiency defines the defectives of these three groups in accordance with the basis recommended by the Royal College of Physicians:

1.    Idiocy (Low Grade Amentia). The idiot is defined as “a person so deeply defective in mind from birth or from early age that he is unable to guard himself against common physical dangers.”

2.   Imbecility (Medium Grade Amentia). The imbecile is defined as “one who, by reason of mental defect existing from birth, or from an early age, is incapable of earning his own living, but is capable of guarding himself against common physical dangers.”

3.   Feeble-mindedness (High Grade Amentia). This is the mildest degree of mental defect, and the feeble-minded person is “one who is capable of earning a living under favorable circumstances, but is incapable, from mental defect existing from birth, or from an early age, (a) of competing on equal terms with his normal fellows; or (b) of managing himself and his affairs with ordinary prudence.

Tredgold suggests that, in addition to this classification, it might be well to define the moral imbecile as “a person who displays from an early age, and in spite of careful upbringing, strong vicious or criminal propensities, on which punishment has little or no deterrent effect.” In its more restricted sense the term “degenerate” seems to mean practically the same as the expression “moral imbecile.” It is the moron or high-grade feeble-minded class of individuals that constitute the greatest cacogenic menace, for these individuals, with little or no protection by a kindly social order, are able to, and do, reproduce their unworthy kind. The still lower grades possess such inferior and ill co-ordinated natural qualities that they require great bolstering up in order to reproduce at all. Under the selfishly severe stress of a primitive order of social affairs, natural selection would readily cut off these lowest classes.

In classifying individuals on the functional basis, the general or average end result in their functioning must be considered, but there is also a qualitative difference. Two individuals may grade, according to Binet test, as mentally, say, five years of age. Whereas one may possess a remarkable memory, but be totally unable to calculate or to be educated in manual skill; the second may be manually skillful and at the same time possess a very poor memory, and so forth throughout all the possible combinations of normal traits and defects.

This peculiar combination of good and bad qualities is further exemplified in the case of idiot savants. Tredgold describes the Genius of Earlswood Asylum: “A patient whose skill in drawing, invention and mechanical dexterity is certainly unequalled by any inmate in any similar institution in existence.” In general this individual who, at the time of Tredgold’s book ( 1908) was 73 years old, functioned as feeble-minded, but, in certain lines of manual skill, he must be ranked as a genius.

But it is necessary for the study of heredity to classify individuals who function as feeble-minded, according to their hereditary traits.  The following classification on the basis of clinical variety and hereditary etiology seems to be eugenically logical. This series is arranged approximately in descending order of hereditary causal factors and in ascending order of exogenous causal factors.

Feeble-mindedness

1.   Moronic. (Simple functional.)
2.   Microcephalic.
3.   Epileptic.
4.   Amaurotic-idiotic.
5.   Cretinic.
6.   Mongolic.
7.   Anæsthetic.
8.   Toxic. (Resulting from disease.)
9.   Traumatic. (Resulting from injury.)


2. THEPAUPERCLASS


Individuals belonging to this class fall quite naturally into the fol-lowing three groups:

1, Tramps;
2, Beggars;
3, Ne’er-do-wells.

Many of these individuals belong properly to the feeble-minded class. Oftentimes their special defect or deficiency takes the form of shiftlessness or laziness. Adults of normal traits, who have been socially adequate, but have, through accident, and children who have, through an absolute lack of training and opportunity, become defective and dependent upon charity are not, for the purposes of this study, to be included in the pauper class. It is only with the individual of a hereditary, degenerate make-up which manifests itself in an inability to get on, or lack of ambition, or laziness which drives him or her beyond the bounds of self-maintained usefulness in an organized society that this study is concerned. These individuals are so strikingly anti-social that society is justified, if the general uselessness can be shown to be hereditary, in cutting off the descent line of this whole group of individuals, even if their specific traits and defects cannot be catalogued.

3. THE INEBRIATE CLASS


With this class as with the paupers, mental deficiency appears to be the endogenous cause. In this particular group the deficiency appears to be of a moral nature, preventing the individual from exercising his moral purpose or inhibitions. Under a purely functional classification, many of the feeble-minded, the criminals, the paupers and the inebriates would be called simply Degenerates, but, as just pointed out, the peculiar type of degeneracy that appears in the in-ebriate seems to be quite different from other sorts of degeneracy herein described.

Individuals belonging to this class present the following special varieties:

1, Dipsomania;
2, Chronic Alcoholism;
3, Pharmacomania.

Alcoholism has a peculiar eugenic signification in that it appears to be inextricably tangled up with mental and physical degeneration of all kinds. From a biological point of view, it is difficult to obtain a clear-cut classification of inebriates.
Havelock Ellis in his book, “The Criminal,” says: The relation of alcoholism to criminality is by no means so simple as is sometimes thought; alcoholism is an effect as well as a cause. It is part of a vicious circle. For a well-conditioned person of wholesome heredity to become an inebriate is not altogether an easy matter. It is facilitated by a predisposition, and alcoholism becomes thus a symptom as well as a cause of degeneration.  * * * It may be added that the danger of alcoholism, from the present point of view, lies not in any mysterious prompting to crime which it gives, but in the manner in which the poison lets loose the individual’s natural or morbid impulses, whatever these may be.

The following statements are taken from the report of the Board of Trustees of the Foxborough State Hospital, Massachusetts, 1909:

Drunkards are often classified for courtroom purposes as follows :
1.   The accidental drunkard.
2.   The occasional drunkard.
3.   The habitual drunkard.

1.   The accidental drunkard is one who has unwittingly drunk too freely of alcohol at saloon or club. His drunkenness is often unintentional, and fre-quently due to inexperience in drinking. If found without escort, he is arrested, quite as much for his own protection as for that of the public. A large percent-age of cases of first arrests belong to this group.

2.   The occasional drunkard is one who becomes intoxicated infrequently, and without morbid predisposing cause. Such especially are the convivial drunk-ards, for whom holidays or celebrations involve excess in drinking. These men seek intoxication from bravado or as the inevitable result of conviviality. Often such customs can be followed without noticeable detriment to the man’s labor.  Cases on their second, third and even later arrests belong largely to this class.

The accidental and occasional drunkards are cases commonly accounted responsible for their act. They are capable of refraining from intemperance when they so wish, and to that extent are willful. These two classes, which comprise the majority of individuals arrested for intoxication, are amenable to correctional treatment.

3.   The habitual drunkard is one in whom intoxication is either frequent or constant.Medical experts show that, where drunkenness has become habitual, a predisposing cause is almost invariably traced in the mind or body of the patient. Drunkenness must in such cases be regarded as a disease, or as the form which certain illnesses take with certain patients.
The starting point of disease is often difficult or impossible to trace. The habitual drunkard cannot be sharply distinguished from the occasional drunkard.  There is an intermediate group, in whom, through use of alcohol, a craving for that drug is developing.

They drink not to satisfy the thirst, which water satisfies, but to fill a craving for either the immediate (stimulating) or remote (narcotic) influence of the drug alcohol.  Continued use of alcohol, especially in large quantities, weakens will power and gradually destroys responsibility. In this borderland are cases who begin to show signs of abnormality—men ordinarily industrious, who let their business suffer through debauch; men ordinarily affectionate, who neglect their homes for saloon or club. They are habitual drunkards in the making.

Medical specialists in inebriety classify habitual inebriates as follows:

(a)The first group comprises men originally of normal health of mind and body, but who, through overwork, domestic or business troubles, coupled perhaps with poor hygiene, insanitary homes or poorly cooked and ill-chosen food, have lowered their power of resistance.With frequent indulgence in alcohol or drugs, self-control gradually has been destroyed, and the patient be-comes powerless to discontinue his habit. The craving for narcotics (narcota-mania) becomes all-absorbing. Under ordinary conditions he is unable to over-come the habit. Cases of this kind studied at the Foxborough State Hospital almost invariably have displayed further symptoms of mental abnormality.This is the most curable class of pathologic inebriates.

(b)The second group, whom physicians often treat apart, are the “periodic drunkards”—men ordinarily temperate, or even abstinent, who at periods some weeks or even months apart are seized with a mania for drunkenness, which may be continuous through a number of days. This period is followed by complete sobriety for weeks or months. This form of dipsomania, which is sometimes stimulated by willful drunkards, is more rare than other forms of inebriety, and is often classed technically as a variety of insanity.

The last group comprises the defectives and degenerates among drunk-ards. Alcoholism of the patient or of his parents may in some of these cases have brought on directly or indirectly the low mental or physical condition. But it is equally true in other cases that imbecility, insanity or other forms of defec-tiveness or degeneracy have preceded and have been responsible for the excessive use of alcohol. The physicians in charge of the larger houses of correction and other institutions in Massachusetts to which drunkards are sent are inclined to assert that the large majority of habitual drunkards in their care are men of less than normal mentality. To this class must be added a considerable group of men past their prime of life, in whom the habit of drinking has intensified as the period of mental and physical decline (involution) has set in. Resistance in such cases is constantly lessened, and inebriety may become chronic.

The reduction of mental power characteristic in all members of this group renders cure improbable.  There is another classification of drunkards which deserves to be considered apart. * * * This differentiates the criminal from the non-criminal drunkard.  The inebriate who offends against the law by larceny, assault or any crime other than public intoxication may be found obviously among accidental, occasional or habitual drunkards. But the type of treatment which he should receive should be different from that of other members of the foregoing groups. Even among criminal drunkards, each case should be considered with reference to whether the man is criminal during periods of sobriety or only during periods of intoxi-cation. Among women drunkards also distinction should be made with regard to the morality of the case during periods of sobriety and intoxication. If a man or woman is criminal or immoral only when intemperate, the vice may be but a phase of the disease of inebriety, and curable with the cure of the original malady.  Obviously, the individual who inherits a craving for alcohol or other poisonous stimulants and inherits at the same time a lack of moral stamina enabling him to resist the temptation is eugenically as well as socially dangerous to the State. Such individuals are cacogenic and must therefore be prevented from contributing their traits to the new generation.

4. THE CRIMINALISTIC CLASS

From a eugenical point of view, there are two sorts of persons legally condemned as criminals. First, individuals who commit technical civil offenses, but whose instincts are social. Second, individuals who commit crimes against society on account of a lack of social moral-ity. The second class of individuals are properly called criminalistic.  If on them neither punishment nor moral precept has much effect, they are properly, then, classed as moral imbeciles and, as such, constitute a biological variety of the human stock. They are the individuals to be considered in this study, which seeks to cut off the supply of individ-uals innately anti-social. The following classification is based upon the nature of the crime rather than the nature of the individual. Yet there is a closer relationship between the two than would appear at the first inspection, for it appears to require a definite innate type of personality-complex to commit, in spite of punishment and efforts at reformation, the same offense naturally and continually and ofttimes almost irresistibly.

1.Crimes Against Chastity.
 
a. Adultery. 
b. Fornication. 
c. Bigamy and polygamy. 
d. Incest. 
e. Prostitution. 
f. Seduction. 
g. Pandering. 
h. Sodomy. 
i. Beastility.


2. Crimes Against Persons.


a.   Slander.
b.   Assault.
c.   Extortion.
d.   Robbery.
e.   ****.
f.   Homicide.
g.   Suicide.

3.Crimes Against Property.

a. Malicious mischief and trespass.
b. Petty larceny.
c. Fraud.
d. Embezzlement.
e. Forgery.
f. Grand larceny.
g. Burglary.
h. Arson.

4.Crimes Against Public Policy.


a.   Disorderly conduct.
b.   Drunkenness.
c.   Vagrancy.
d.   Truancy.
e.     Incorrigibility.
f.   Perjury.
g.   Illicit liquor trade.
h.   Counterfeiting.
i.   Treason.

Havelock Ellis in “The Criminal” says:

* * * Moreover, the attitude of society toward the individual criminal and his peculiarities must be to some extent determined by our knowledge of criminal heredity.

The hereditary character of crime, and the organic penalties of natural law, were recognized even in remote antiquity. They were involved in the old Hebrew conception, which seems to have played a vital part in Hebrew life, of a God who visited the sins of the parents upon the children unto the third and fourth generation. We know also the story in Aristotle of the man who, when his son dragged him by his hair to the door, exclaimed: “Enough, enough, my son; I did not drag my father beyond this.”

A biological, psychological, or genetic analysis of criminalistic persons better adapted to eugenic studies is up to the present time lacking. Socially these individuals are outcasts; biologically many of them are feeble-minded, but the precise manner in which selfish instincts, certain types of cunning and even ability, laziness, irritability, inborn love of cruelty, lack of inhibition, lack of social appreciation and other specific ancestral traits recombine in heredity to form a new criminalistic personality, remains to be formulated. The development of the genetics of the criminal is one of the pressing tasks of eugenics.  Any one or any complex of these traits so highly developed as to prevent an individual from leading a normal and socially adequate existence, if such condition is hereditary, renders that individual cacogenic and places him under the ban of unfitness for reproduction.  Before a given individual’s line of heredity is cut off, it must be shown that such individual carries a hereditary taint—such as those just described—of danger to the race.

5. THE EPILEPTIC CLASS


Among degenerates epilepsy is so common that it deserves a separate classification under the anti-social group. Functionally this disease is often associated with feeble-mindedness, crime, inebriety and insanity, but, on the other hand, sometimes it is associated with sterling personalities of great social worth.

Epilepsy varies in degree, and, on this basis, an arbitrary scale could be elaborated. Such scale would take into consideration intensity of attack, duration of attack, exciting causes of attack, rate of convalescence, intervals between attacks, etc. Clinically, epileptics are classed under the following heads, depending upon the prevalent type of attack: 1, Grand Mal; 2, Petit Mal; 3, Mental Epilepsy.  No clearer cases of specific hereditary degeneracy than those of epilepsy have been established. Even when associated with sterling traits in worthy personalities, epilepsy is a deteriorating factor. When associated with other defects, they appear to be inter-accelerating causes of deterioration.

6.   THE INSANE CLASS


There is no class of anti-social individuals more definitely and sharply marked off from the general social body, so far as their principles of conduct are concerned, than the insane class. With this class heredity plays an important part, and here again the basis of social classification is purely functional, while that of eugenics is heredity.  The very complexity of the functions of the nervous system in-sures the certainty of numerous kinds of nervous and mental disorders, and, although speaking in the very strictest sense, there are as many types of psychoses as there are insane persons, still mental disorders tend to follow definite directions. Dr. Wm. A. White, in his Outline of Psychiatry, says:

It is the duty of the nervous system to see that the functions of the several organs are rightly timed and properly adjusted in relation to one another. This is the function of the lower nerve centres.

The highest nerve centres of the cerebral cortex that constitute the physical basis of mind have quite a different function. Their duty is to so regulate and control the actions of the individual as to best serve his interests in his relations with his environment.
As with the feeble-minded, a classification based upon etiology and the degree of hereditary factors rather than one based upon social adequacy more nearly approximates the eugenic basis. The following classification is so based:

Insanity

1.   Functional dementia.
        a.   Dementia praecox.
        b.   Manic depressive insanity.
        c.   Involutional melancholia.
        d.   Chronic delusional insanity.
        e.   Senile dementia.

2.   Psychoneuroses.
        a.   Neuresthenia.
        b.   Hysteria.
        c.   Psychasthenia.

3.   Psychoses following or accompanying organic disorders.
        A.   Nervous disorders leading to dementia.
            a.   Epilepsy.
            b.   Huntington’s chorea.
            c.   Polyneuritis.
            d.   Multiple sclerosis.
        B.   Arterial disorders leading to dementia.
            a.   Apoplexy.
            b.   Arteriosclerosis.

4.   Toxic Psychoses.


        A.   Caused by endogenously produced toxins.
            a.   Uremia
            b.   Diabetes.
            c.   Gastro-intestinal disorders.
            d.   Thyroidal malfunction.
                1.   Hypo-secretion—Myxoedema and cretinism.
                2.   Hyper-secretion—Exophthalmic goitre.
        B.   Psychoses caused by infectious diseases.
            a.   Paresis.
            b.   Pellagra?
            c.   Hydrophobia and other acute infectious deliria.
            d.   Febrile delirium.

        C.   Psychoses caused by exogenously produced toxins.
            a.   Chronic alcoholism.
            b.   Pharmacomania.

5.   Psychoses of exhaustion—Delirium grave.
6.   Psychoses caused by brain tumor.
7.   Psychoses caused by trauma.


The first group of psychoses above named is called functional because, if lesions accompany these mental disorders, they have not yet been discovered by the pathologist but, if the theory that every psychoses is based upon a neurosis becomes established, then the sharp line of demarcation between the organic and the functional psychoses disappears and, rather, one end of the scale represents the psychoses accompanied by gross lesions and the other that accompanied by the more minute lesions.

Dr. Wm. A. White, in his book above referred to (Outline of Psychiatry), says:

* * * Mental processes, from their incidence in sensations to the release of the motor responses constituting conduct, are conceived to have as their phy-sical substratum a continuous neural process. The process, although differently named in different parts of its course for convenience of designation, is a continuous one.

* * * The standpoint of this new-psychology is distinctly differ-ent from the standpoint of a few years ago. Until its development the attitude of the psychiatrist was that of the systematic biologist classifying the several cases into families, genera, species, but classifying upon the basis of the obvious symptoms only. The keynote of the new standpoint is its distinctly individual-istic trend.

* * * The so-called clinical types are not clean-cut entities, but are only groups of symptoms, which either seem to occur more frequently in combination or else have been more definitely and clearly seen because of that combination. In fact types as such may be said to be in the minority. The great mass of cases seen are combinations more or less intermediate in character. The conception of types in order to be accurate must be from a broadly biological viewpoint. Types are like species. They have innumerable transition and inter-mediate forms.

* * * Insanity, therefore, is not a disease; it is rather a class of disorders, which tend to arrange themselves with greater or less distinctiveness into groups of reaction types.

In relation to practical eugenics a specific psychosis may be directly inherited as such, in which case the disease will appear in due onto-genetic sequence. Or its diathesis only may be transmitted. In some types, such as chronic alcoholism and paresis, heredity appears to be the foundation factor, but the poisons respectively of alcohol and of treponema pallidummust conspire with this defective background in order to produce the disease. So in the group of so-called functional psychoses there may be either a weak or strong diathesis—the one requiring a relatively great stress and the other a relatively little stress to bring on the ailment. To the extent that a given strain possesses a hereditary constitutional make-up liable to display a psychosis under anything less than an extraordinary formidable stress of circumstances, there exists in such strain a cacogenic variety of the human race.
 
As in the case of the feeble-minded and criminalistic, the personality of the individual is subject to great variation. It appears that
practically every normal function is susceptible of disorder and the extraordinarily numerous possibilities of combinations of traits, some normal and others perverted, make the total array of possible psychic conditions almost incomprehensibly great.

Psychiatrists, however, have found that the commonest disorders tend to fall along certain definite lines and hence the possibility of classifying this sort of degeneracy.
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"For the first years of [Ludwig von] Mises’s life in the United States...he was almost totally dependent on annual research grants from the Rockefeller Foundation.” -- Richard M. Ebeling

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